ECMAScript is a standard for a scripting languages. Languages like JavaScript, ActionScript are based on the ECMAScript standard. ECMA standard is based on several originating technologies, the most well-known being JavaScript (Netscape) and JScript (Microsoft).

What is ECMAScript ?

What is ECMA ?

ECMA stands for - European Compute Manufacturer's Association. ECMAScript is a standard. It specifies the core features that a scripting language should provide and how those features should be implemented. 

ECMA International

This is an organization that creates standard for technologies. Visit  ECMA International


This is a standard published by ECMA International. It contains the specification for a general purpose scripting language. Visit ECMA-262

ECMAScript Versions

ES1 (ECMAScript 1)

This is the first version of ECMAScript. It came in 1997.

ES2 (ECMAScript 2)

This is the second version of ECMAScript. It came in 1998. Editorial changes to keep the specification fully aligned with ISO/IEC 16262 international standard 

ES3 (ECMAScript 3)

It came in December, 1999. Added regular expressions, better string handling, new control statements, try/catch exception handling, tighter definition of errors, formatting for numeric output, and other enhancements

ES4 (ECMAScript 4)

The fourth version was abandoned due to political differences related to language complexity. Many of the features proposed for the fourth version have been completely removed. Some were included in the sixth version.

ES5 (ECMAScript 5)

It came in December, 2009. Adds "strict mode," a subset intended to provide more thorough error checking and avoid error-prone constructs. Clarifies many ambiguities in the 3rd version specification, and accommodates behavior of real-world implementations that differed consistently from that specification. Adds some new features, such as getters and setters, library support for JSON, and more complete reflection on object properties.

ES6 (ECMAScript 6)

It came in 2015. In this version added these features: let and const, default parameter values, Array.find() and Array.findIndex() etc.

ES7 (ECMAScript 7)

It came in 2016. In this version added exponential operator(**) and Array.prototype.includes.

ES8 (ECMAScript 8)

It came in 2017. In this version added these features: string padding, Object.entries, Object.values, async functions and shared memory.

ES9 (ECMAScript 9)

It came in 2018. In this version added these features: rest/spread properties, asynchronous iteration, Promise.finally(), RegExp etc.

ES10 (ECMAScript 10)

It came in 2019. In this version Array.prototype.flat, Array.prototype.flatMap changes to Array.sort and Object.fromEnties.

ES11 (ECMAScript 11)

It came in 2020. This version includes BigInt, nullish coalescing operator and globalThis object.


This is a dynamic name that refers the next version. 


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